1. What is the best way to incorporate Fibersol®-2 into my cookies? When I used it, I had too much spread.
A: When incorporating Fibersol®-2 into any baked-good application, adjustments in absorption might be needed. In cookie applications, a formulation that incorporates Fibersol®-2 may need less moisture than a control formulation. Decreasing the amount of sucrose in the control formulation to incorporate Fibersol®-2 is one possible solution. In that case, since part of the sucrose is being replaced with Fibersol®-2, the moisture content should be decreased as needed since Fibersol®-2, is water soluble up to 70% (w/w) at 20◦C. Adjustments in moisture content when using Fibersol®-2 will be different in each application.
2. How to reduce stickiness when using Fibersol®-2 in extrusion?
A: Adding a low level of a calcium carbonate can help reduce stickiness in the extruded piece. The calcium carbonate and Fibersol®-2 works together to help strengthen the finished piece while increasing the finished fiber content and adding crispness.
3. Q: What is Fibersol®-2? What it is not?
A: Scientifically, Fibersol®-2 is a “resistant maltodextrin” or alternatively a “digestion resistant maltodextrin” fully 90+% resistant to digestion by the human digestive system. Fibersol®-2 is sold as “digestion resistant maltodextrin” to clearly define that is it resistant to digestion and that it is not a digestible carbohydrate.
4. Q: Is Fibersol®-2 “organic”?
A: Fibersol®-2 is not “organic”.
5. Q: In what sense, scientific, technical and regulatory basis, is Fibersol®-2 truly “dietary fiber” for nutrition labeling purposes?
A: For years, scientific and technical definitions for “dietary fiber” have been proposed. There are currently several groups continuing this effort to harmonize definitions so to be scientifically correct and meaningful from a regulatory perspective. In the U.S., “dietary fiber” for nutrition labeling purposes is defined by analytical methods used to measure it. Official methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) are preferred as they have been proven to be both accurate (measure what they need to measure) and precise (repeatable).
In 2001, the AOAC approved for use method #2001.03 “Determination of Total Dietary Fiber in Foods Containing Resistant Maltodextrin”. This method is applicable to foods that contain “resistant maltodextrin”. Because of AOAC approval and the methods internal definition of indigestible carbohydrates, the dietary fiber content of Fibersol®-2 and foods containing Fibersol®-2, can be determined. These results can be used for nutrition labeling purposes.
6. Q: Help me understand the AOAC 2001.03 method. For which dietary fibers will or will not the method test? How do I get this analysis done? How do I use the results? Do I need to test every lot of ingredient; every lot of finished product?
A: Fibersol®-2 contains 90+% dietary fiber in the form of water-soluble dietary fiber. It does not contain insoluble dietary fiber. Further, the soluble dietary fiber in Fibersol®-2 is both of high molecular weight (alcohol insoluble) and low molecular weight (alcohol soluble) indigestible carbohydrates. Until AOAC 2001.03 low molecular weight indigestibles could not be captured accurately or precisely. AOAC 2001.03 now captures ALL dietary fibers… insoluble, high molecular weight soluble, and low molecular weight soluble fractions. The method is only approved for use in foods, however, containing resistant maltodextrin.
If you require Fibersol®-2, or any food containing Fibersol®-2, to be tested using the AOAC method only a few analytical labs are set up to do the test on an ongoing basis. Sample preparation and testing takes a long time relative to other dietary fiber tests. The net result is that testing may not be done on an ongoing basis and cost per sample could be prohibitively expensive.
The good news is that ADM Quality Control tests fiber on all production lots of Fibersol®-2 and reports results on all certificates of analysis issued. No lot of Fibersol®-2 is released for sale without satisfying product specification guarantees. To date no lot of Fibersol®-2 has been rejected by any customer due to low dietary fiber.
ADM COA’s may be used to support dietary fiber guarantees and thus nutrition labeling needs; however, customers assume all final responsibility for the nutritional labeling support of their product. .
For testing of finished foods, contact your local Fibersol®-2 sales rep for testing labs and options.
7. Q: Typical use rates?
A: See notes related to this above.
8. Q: Any limitations of use?
A: In general there are no limitations to use. Fibersol®-2 is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in the United States as maltodextrin. In some applications (e.g., specific baked goods, processed meats) careful consideration(s) on how Fibersol®-2 is applied may be necessary. At no time does Fibersol®-2 interfere with the sensory properties of foods to which it is added. It has a high digestive tolerance and is non-allergenic.
9. Q: Labeling?
A: Fibersol®-2 is sold and packaged as “digestion resistant maltodextrin”. This is not the only option available. See current web site for labeling options used by those using Fibersol®-2.
For those with interest, Matsutani America offers fee-free use of the Fibersol®-2 trademark. See your Fibersol®-2 sales rep for details. Remember only Fibersol®-2 contains the word “fiber” in its tradename. Thus, properly using Fibersol®-2 offers a consumer friendly way to communicate which ingredient in any given formula is the source of dietary fiber.
10. Q: Typical dietary fiber content versus actual manufacturing certificates of analysis (COA’s)?
A: The dietary fiber content of Fibersol®-2 is guaranteed to be 90+% minimum dry solids basis. Actual COA’s typically report 94-96% dietary fiber using a modified AOAC 2001.03 method for QA purposes.
11. Q: Any concerns about stability in finished foods?
A: No. Fibersol®-2 is made using both heat and acid. It is inherently stable to both, and does not lose fiber content during processing or storage. Thus, it is compatible to ALL processing conditions, distribution conditions, and shelf-life expectations.
12. Q: Does it have any influence on flavor of finished foods?
A: Remember, flavor is due to a complex combination of appearance, aroma, taste (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, unami or savory), and texture. Fibersol®-2 adds no inherent flavor, taste, or color to foods to which it is added. However, it may, depending on the application, positively influence taste and texture and positively influence flavor. Fibersol®-2 does not really affect appearance of foods nor does it affect aroma (it is totally non-aromatic and does not affect aromatic fine chemicals) in foods.
In some instances (e.g., use of high intensity sweeteners, whole grain ingredients, vitamins, minerals, etc.), it can “round off” bitter/harsh aftertastes in very significant and positive ways. For example, with high intensity sweeteners, ultra-low levels of Fibersol®-2 can add more sugar-like sweetness to foods.
13. Q: What’s the difference between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber? Can they be labeled differently?
A: Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber differ in terms of solubility in water.
Soluble fibers dissolve or swell when placed in water. There are several examples of soluble fiber such as pectins, gums, mucilages, rice bran, psyllium, and soy fiber. These fibers are present in numerous food products including salad dressings, jams, and jellies.
Insoluble fibers generally do not dissolve in water, these include cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins which are structural components of plants. Bran fiber is rich in hemicelluloses. Insoluble fibers are part of whole grain foods.
For ingredient labeling, the common and usual name of the specific ingredient must be used. For nutrition labeling, voluntary differentiation between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, is allowed.
14. Q: How does FS2 differ from other low viscosity water soluble dietary fibers?
A: Fibersol®-2 is typically 90+% dietary fiber as manufactured and few other ingredients come close to near 100% dietary fiber on a dry basis. The “sugar” level in Fibersol®-2 is ~ 2%, which makes Fibersol®-2 perfect for sugar-modified foods, true sugar-free foods (< 0.5 g total “sugars” per serving), and still deliver a high dietary fiber content.
Functionally, Fibersol®-2 adds virtually no sweetness to foods and is fully stable to acid, heat, and all processing conditions. Unlike water soluble dietary fibers that are extracts, Fibersol®-2 does not lose it dietary fiber content. It also does not “release” or increase the simple sugar content in foods. When dietary fiber is hydrolyzed, by process or naturally, foods can fall short of dietary fiber and sugar claims.
Nutritionally Fibersol®-2 is not totally fermented in the colon thus allowing for slow development and dissipation of developed acid and gas.
15. Q: If Fibersol®-2 is GRAS as maltodextrin, then can FS2 replace MDX 1:1 and how is Fibersol®-2 different from regular, plain maltodextrin itself?
A: Maltodextrin is an oligosaccharide produced by the hydrolysis of starch to a dextrose equivalence (DE) of less than 20. It is most commonly spray-dried into a powdered ingredient. Fibersol®-2 is broadly considered a maltodextrin, meaning it can be used to replace standard maltodextrin in any application, with similar functionality. The difference is that the oligosaccharide chains in Fibersol-2 contain many bonds not broken down by the human digestive system, making it 90% soluble dietary fiber.
16. Q: Is Fibersol®-2 natural?
A: In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration does not define “natural” except for colors and flavors. Fibersol®-2 is naturally sourced from corn, and is processed by roasting under acidic conditions and enzymatic treatment.
17. Q: Will Fibersol®-2 give me diarrhea?
A: Fibersol®-2 is well tolerated in the digestive system, and has a very high laxation threshold above 70 grams per day.
18. Q: Can you overdose on Fibersol®-2?
A: Fibersol®-2 is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA, and there are no limitations on usage levels or intake. The possibility of severe gastrointestinal disturbance and laxation exists at high doses, as with any other fiber source. For Fibersol®-2, this high dose is at levels substantially above those which are typically consumed.
19. Q: What is the typical use rate?
A: Food manufacturers seeking to add dietary fiber often want to achieve a fiber claim on the product label, a “good source” or “excellent source” of fiber.” A “good source” claim requires 10% of the RDA for fiber per serving, which is 2.5 grams. An “excellent source” claim requires 20% of the RDA for fiber per serving, which is 5 grams. If Fibersol-2 is the sole source of fiber, then 2.8 grams or 5.6 grams would be required per serving for a “good source” or “excellent source” claim, respectively, as Fibersol-2 contains 90% fiber. Other products nutritional criteria beyond fiber must be considered as well.
20. Q: How is the fiber in Fibersol®-2 measured?
A: Fibersol is measured using AOAC 2001.03. This method is a development of AOAC 985.29, commonly known as the Prosky method. AOAC 985.29 uses an enzymatic treatment to mimic human digestion, then gravimetrically measures the resulting ethanol-insoluble residue. As much of the fiber in Fibersol-2 is low-molecular-weight fiber that is soluble in ethanol, AOAC 985.29 does not completely quantify the fiber content of Fibersol®-2. AOAC 2001.03 includes an additional step that measures the low-molecular-weight fiber solubilized in the ethanol filtrate by liquid chromatography, which makes this method able to fully measure the fiber content of Fibersol®-2. The AOAC 2001.03 method has regulatory acceptance in most countries, with no objection to its use in the United States.